The pes planus foot is commonly referred to as a flat foot. It is a condition where the arch of the foot has not developed correctly and there is little or no arch when the person is standing. It is commonly seen with over-pronation, however, this is not always the case. There are two main types of pes planus, flexible or rigid, most flat feet are flexible. A flexible flat foot will have an arch when not standing (non weight bearing), but will flatten when standing. Over time, the tendons and ligaments of the arch can stretch, tear or become inflamed, causing pain in the heel, arch, ankle, shins (shin splints), knees, hips and lower back. It can also contribute to other conditions such as overpronation, bunions, hammer toes, or plantar fasciitis. In a rigid flatfoot, the foot is stiff and inflexible and commonly requires more in depth medical treatment or surgical options. Children typically have Pes Planus feet until their arches develop normally, usually by age 10.
Some people who are Pes Planus do not have symptoms or pain, however for many it may lead to other issues such as heel pain, arch pain, ankle soreness and shin splints. They may also experience knee pain, hip pain and lower back pain. Conditions such as Bunions, Hammer Toes and Plantar Fasciitis may develop as well.
- Custom made functional orthotics with deep heel cup and good longitudinal arch support to control the pronation of the foot for flexible flat feet.
- Custom made accommodative orthotics for rigid flat feet
- Orthopedic footwear – properly fitted, strong supportive shoes with rigid heel counter or firm extended medial counter and medial support.
- Footwear modifications – rocker soles, scaphoid pads, internal or external medial wedges and medial stabilizers.